Posts tagged ‘Projects’

December 5, 2010

Abuse of Children- Spotting the Signs and Stopping it.

If you have been one of the thousands on people on facebook who have changed their page picture to a childhood cartoon character then you will know that this is to show support of the NSPCC, the charity to help stop abuse to thousands of children across the country. However, many do not know of what else to do to help children of child abuse. The NSPCC makes hundred of suggestions and ideas for those to help them show their support and help to stop the horrible statistics. Some are as easy as keeping your eyes and ears open.

The NSPCC has reviewed that almost 40% of children on the child protection register were under four years of age in 2006 meaning that babies and toddlers are at risk from child abuse and that two thirds of children killed at the hands of another person where under five years of age in 2005. Children over this age are also at risk of harrowing abuse with 16% of children under the age of sixteen experiencing sexual abuse. This is also a risk of boys as well as girls with 11% experiencing some form of sexual abuse under the age of sixteen.

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December 2, 2010

What’s the difference between snow men and snow women? SNOW BALLS!!

Just a couple of immature photographs me and my friend Alex took tonight of the recent snowfall we’ve had in Bournemouth today. There’s nothing like making a glorious snow woman. Besides, why snow when you can snow-ho?

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December 1, 2010

That’s the Spirit!!

In the run up to Christmas, you may want to indulge in a few Christmas tibbles, either for guests or just for you and your housemates. Here are a few recipes I found, some of them I’ve altered a tad (just to include some more alcohol). Here are my favourites:

1. Blue Fizz

Champagne mixed with some blue curacao. Put in a real champagne glass (please don’t use a mug or something, it’s champagne!) Carefully pour on some hazelnut baileys to give the top of the glass a thin head and serve for a sophisticated festive feeling!

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November 29, 2010

Eastenders Christmas Polls 2010

As my housemates and myself have finished watching yet another episode of the BBC soap ‘Eastenders‘, we have now created several scenarios for the Christmas Day special. A year of so many revelations, Stacey killed Archie Mitchell, Peggy finally hung up the ‘Last Call’ bell and Kat and Alfie Moon‘s return to the show, the only thing that can top off a scandalous year is an outrageous Christmas Special.

While sitting and watching we have concocted several scenarios. Please comment and rate, if you have any suggestions, please include them!

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November 28, 2010

Communications Skills- Relationship theories and Prosocial Behaviour- May, 2009

Discuss Prosocial Behaviour in the Context of Effective use of Communication Skills and Relevant Relationship Theories

The focus of the prosocial behaviour is aimed at Germaine Greer and the prosocial behaviour of women’s liberation, especially in the 1960s to 1990s feminist movements. Specifically, Germaine Greer’s prosocial behaviour regards the explicit ways in which she challenges a patriarchal society and authority.

In terms of prosocial behaviour, it is described as actions that benefit others or social groups as a whole. In the case of Greer, it can be motivational, intentional or altruistic, described as cost to the helping party. Bierhoff describes prosocial behaviour in the book ‘Introduction to Social Psychology (2001), as a result in one’s behaviour towards others in terms of social psychology. “In general, prosocial behaviour may result either from the ultimate goal to benefit oneself (egoistically motivated behaviour) or from the ultimate goal to benefit another person (altruistically motivated behaviour)”. (Bierhoff: 2001: pg 286) Prosocial behaviour is an aspect of social interaction, supported by Bales in the ‘Interaction Process Analysis’ under the socio-emotional category, whereby this social interaction shows solidarity and support to the group.

An example of this prosocial behaviour demonstrated by Greer is the clip This clip is from a 1992 interview on an Australian talk show. In this example, there is a female interviewer and the demonstrated interview focuses on feminism and a the promotion of Greer’s book. In terms of prosocial behaviour, several examples can be drawn from this interview. Firstly, there is self-concept in terms of interpersonal communication. Supported by ‘The Interpersonal Communication Book’ (Devito:2009:pg 55), the idea of self-concept is that one can view their own strengths and weaknesses. Greer demonstrates her self-concept with the understanding of the images of others towards her and the particular feminist groups in terms of sexual explicitness. This is demonstrated in the example as she states “People think I have no self-consciousness and what has built up over the years in the sense of not measuring up to the stereotype.” (01:04/02:30). Greer has demonstrated that she is aware of the public images and the criticisms that have surrounded her and her liberation movement. This is considered prosocial as we base our self-perception around our self-image, however, other’s images of us can effect us in ourselves. Greer has shown that she is aware of her public image and so can maintain a self-perception.

Other prosocial behaviour examples in terms of the individual’s sense of self are proposed by Steward and Logan (1998) who suggested that there are dimensions of oneself. This is commonly referred to as social exhaling. This is linked to self-disclosure, which is considered prosocial behaviour, especially in an interview. Dindia (2000) describes self-disclosure as “what individuals verbally reveal about themselves” and this is focused on intentional discourse, meaning that the individual is conscious of the social interaction and is focused on it. Self-disclosure is typical of small social situations so is common in interview. This establishes a relationship between the interviewer and the interviewee as the interviewee discloses information about themselves which is considered appropriate in terms of prosocial behaviour. These different dimensions of self include the personal self, social self and cultural self. As this interview was after the feminist era, Greer demonstrates the understanding of her cultural self towards the interviewer as she describes her beliefs in terms of the context of the new stereotypes of women and their self-esteem. She also demonstrates her personal self and social self by revealing her believes in terms of the social groups she wishes to empower. This is prosocial as she is showing her specific beliefs to others in order to benefit those who may be in her target social groups or out of it. It is also considered to be prosocial as part of communication and forming a relationship. In this situation, it would be with the interviewer and audiences, even though they are not present at the time.

However, with self-disclosure comes the responsibility of interpersonal communication. The use of interpersonal communication has been previously studied to prove social influence processes. This then made lead to interpersonal relationships, however a part of interpersonal communication is the use of verbal messages. Being an interview, there will be an effective use of verbal messages in order to maintain a conversation between the interviewer and the interviewee. An aspect of verbal messages is the use of politeness strategies, which is considered prosocial in the context to keep the conversation accommodating for the audiences. Example of the politeness strategies include Greer showing consideration for the interviewer by responding to questions appropriate and Greer also shows consideration for the audiences by using indirect messages. These indirect messages are important in expressing an opinion or desire without offending others. Greer does not directly criticise a certain group of women who she feels are stereotyping their gender. She avoids this by widely demonstrating the different sub-cultures of women. “But some of their lives are taken up with putting on make-up and getting their hair coloured and organised and getting dressed in a way that is acceptable in the work environment and a lot of their anxiety stems on that. They don’t all have jobs and children, some have no jobs and children, some have children and no husband and so on”. (01:22/02:30). This indirect speech is used in order to politely counter against the criticism of a certain group by widening the specification so as not to offend. Holmes (1995) suggested that indirect speech is common in women when used in communication, due to biological differences which included politeness and listening, or due to social behaviours and patterns through cultures, backgrounds and neutering.

Other examples of verbal messages include the use of confirmation messages in the verbal communication. Hill and Watson define confirmation in their book ‘Dictionary of Media and Communication Studies’ (2006), “Confirming responses tend to confirm or validate the view of yourself you have put forward and/or the views you have expressed in conversation”. (Hill, Watson: 2006) This is considered to be prosocial behaviour as Greer is taking the interviewers questions into consideration and is acknowledging her presence and her opinion on the issue of feminism. Both women use the validation of “I think” in their responses to express their opinions and they both take each other in consideration. This communication pattern is positive in conversation as it can also be an indication of the other persons self-definition and their beliefs.

With these uses of verbal messages and interpersonal communication, relationships can be formed and these are important to achieve and maintain a sense of intimacy, be it friends, family or workplace relationships. The interview is an example of a workplace relationships, more specifically a networking relationship. Workplace relationships are the forms of communications that happen within a working environment. The influence of workplace relationships can be cultural, meaning that the cultural differences can determine the different norms and social cues, which can lead to and maintain this relationships. Kanter (1984) has argued that the networking relationships is built on the exchange of information between people and the resources and support given in order to maintain a relationship. This interview can be described as an example of formal networking whereby the objective is to establish connections so that one party, or sometimes both, can benefit from the relationship in terms of career or personal reasons besides emotional. This interview is to help promote Greer’s new book so she is giving examples of the tone of the book in the interview and asking questions in order to help the sales of the book. However, it could be argued that the interviewer is also benefiting from Greer appearance on the show. This is common in networking relationships. Devito (2009) also suggests this by arguing, “In networking it’s often recommended that you try to establish relationships that are mutually beneficial. After all, much as others are useful sources of information for you, you’re likely to be a useful source of information for others. If you can provide others with helpful information, it’s more likely that they will provide helpful information for you. In this way, a mutually satisfying and productive network is established”. In this case, the interviewer needs information from Greer in order to help promote and increase viewing figure for the show. This relationship is mutually beneficial to both parties and so is maintained in order to help each other.

Prosocial behaviour also crosses into non-verbal communication. Examples of non-verbal communication include kinesics (body language), facial expressions and vocalics, or paralinguistics. These are all important in communication as they can convey connotations behind behaviours, be it prosocial or antisocial. In terms of kinesics, Greer’s body language is very encouraging as she is sitting with her foot up on her chair, which gives the impression that the interview is informal and so conveys a sense of relaxation. This could be considered an alter-adaptor form of non-verbal communication as this body movement is in response to a social interaction, in this case Greer’s interaction with the interviewer. Eye communication between the two ladies is also important. This is categorized as occulesis, which explores the communication of messages by the eyes. Several theories have been put forward by such people as Knapp and Hall (2006), Malandro, Barker and Barker (1989) and Richmond, McCroskey and Hickson (2008) to support occulesis and in this situation, eye contact is maintained to regulate the conversation between Greer and the interviewer. Eye contact is used to initiate the communication in terms of when the person should respond and when somebody has the floor to speak. This kind of eye contact is common in interviews and so is used frequently.

All of these examples of prosocial behaviour are appropriate to a formal interview situation, especially since Greer has appeared on the show to promote her new book to audiences, however, there are some situations where prosocial behaviour takes a different approach in order to accommodate audiences in a different context. In the next example, Greer has appeared on a BBC one programme called ‘This is Dom Jolly’, which was broadcast in 2007 ( This show is an entertainment show that interviews others but uses a very different register. Another difference in this clip is that there is a live studio audience who Greer also has to take into consideration.

In terms of prosocial behaviour between the interviewer, Joly, and the interviewee, Greer, there is difference in the verbal communication from the previous example. Verbal messages are still in-placed which is typical of a talk show and these are still examples of self-disclosure. Greer still expresses her opinion of the patriarchal society but Joly is offering examples of her career in order to retain a response by saying, “The usual bimbos they have on that programme, it’s unbelievable I think.” (01:00/02:52). This is an example of ‘The Open Self’ purposed by Johari and referred to as the ‘Johari Window’. The open self refers to the information about oneself that is also known to others. It is well known that Greer is a feminist and so by using colloquial terms, such as “bimbo”, Joly is also showing that he knows her attitudes and beliefs towards the non-feminist culture. Assertiveness is also conveyed through verbal messages and this is apparent in this interview clip. Assertion is how one conveys their beliefs and attitudes about a subject matter and in this interview, both parties convey this. In accordance to Rakos (1997) in the book ‘The Handbook of Communication Skills’, assertion is defined in a number of ways. “Four ‘positive’ response classes include admitting personal-shortcomings (self-disclosure), giving and receiving compliments, initiating and maintaining interactions and expressing positive feelings.” (pg 291). this means that in a social situation, assertion can be used as a form of self-disclosure. However, assertion is not to be confused with aggression which combines submissive behaviour whereas assertion is socially acceptable.

The assertiveness demonstrates can also be linked to the humour and playful behaviours of both Greer and Joly. In a social situation, many can use humour directed to each other, or banter as it is sometimes named, in order to show assertiveness in the communication. In Alberts’ study (1992), elements were purposed in order to successfully achieve assertiveness through humour. This was described in the book, ‘Skilled Interpersonal Communication’ (Hargie and Dickson: 2004). “Alberts points out that decisions about how to react to teasing behaviour are made on the basis of four main elements: the perceived goal of the teaser; background knowledge of and relationship with this person; the context in which the tease is employed; and the paralinguistic tone with which it is delivered.” (pg 323). It this situation, the humour to derived from background knowledge of Greer’s career and her stance on non-feminist groups. It seems like Greer and Joly are friends so the humour is used in the correct situation and so is successful and avoids any kind of offence.

From the interview situation, it seems like this is a networking relationship, much like the previous example. Greer has appeared on the show because it is a celebrity talk show and this could be positive for her career. These shows usually have on guests who are promoting themselves or a product and so Greer could be appearing on the show to help her reputation by appearing in a more informal show. In 2007, ‘This is Dom Joly’ was in its first season on the BBC so Joly needs Greer in order to help ratings of the show, which would be crucial at this stage in production. This is an example of formal networking. However, with the difference in language and communication in this example, the relationship could be viewed as a friendship relationship due to the intimacy in conversation and the playful language. This is supported by Devito (2009), “As you progress from the initial contact stage to intimate friendship, the depth and breadth of communication increase. You talk about issues that are closer and closer to your inner core. Similarly, the number of communication topics increase as your friendship becomes closer”. (pg 249). The communication between Greer and Joly is past a formal stage, thus making it entertaining for the audience. It seems as Greer and Joly have met before and formed a friendship.

There are several changes to non-verbal communication in this example which could be viewed as prosocial or antisocial compared to the first example. Whereas in the first example, Greer was sitting casually, in the interview with Joly, her arms are crossed and her legs are crossed which could indicate an uncomfortable social situation. This is an example of alter-adaptors and this could be due to the less intimate setting. There is a live studio audience and Greer and Joly are sitting further apart than the first interview so this body language could show that Greer is uncomfortable. There is also an example of an object-adaptor when Greer is fiddling with her earring during the interview. This could represent some hostility, which would support the alter-adaptor example. According to Burgoon, Buller and Woodall (1996), this kind of behaviour could also indicate some anxiety or uneasiness. This could be typical in this kind of situation with a live audience present. This is also the use of facial communication to express humour towards the audience. When Joly claims that they both have equal intelligence, Greer looks away with an expression of disgust, which is appreciated by the audience. According to Ekman, Friesen and Ellsworth (1972), these facial movements are in order to sub-consciously show expressions of happiness, sadness, surprise, fear, anger, disgust, contempt and interest. The facial expression of interest is also used in this situation, when the other person is talking, the other listens and show a look of interest (raised eyebrows). This kind of non-verbal communication is commonly used in interviews to indicate a communication pattern in conversation. The use of eye communication, or occulesis, is also demonstrated in order to regulate conversation. As it was explained earlier, these eye gazes can be used in order to monitor feedback between the two parties, to secure the attention of the other person and to regulate the conversation. This is common in interview and secure a type of intimacy with the other person as they are using occulesis as a politeness strategy in order to avoid cutting in on each others speech.

In conclusion, prosocial behaviour can be found in many forms of communication skills and the relevant relationship theories that follow them. My example of Germaine Greer served as an example to those communication skills. In the first interview, there were many politeness strategies in order to secure a successful interview. There were examples of self-concept as Greer expressed many opinions, and importantly, she also discussed the views that others had of her. This helps the levels of self-esteem and also reveals a level of intimacy between Greer and the interviewer. There were also examples of prosocial verbal messages. There is indirect messages in order to avoid confrontation and the chance of offending audience members and there were also confirmation messages to help express Greer’s opinion. This shows that this interview was meant to be prosocial and help others realise her individual opinion of others. In this example the relationship between Greer and the interviewer was considered to be a networking relationship as Greer was interviewed to promote her new book and the show would benefit from having her as a guest as it may help their ratings. This is a mutually beneficial relationship. In the second example, there are still examples of self-concept but there was also the use of assertion. This is considered prosocial as it is simply the use of expressing an opinion and is not considered aggressive. However, in this interview, there was the use of teasing between Joly and Greer and this could be considered prosocial as it is making the interview more personal and informal to make it enjoyable for audiences. Again, the relationship here would be a networking relationship, but there are elements of a friendship relationship due to the teasing and the levels of intimacy. Many of these examples prove that prosocial behaviour can be demonstrated with the effective use of communication skills and in these examples, the communication was appropriate for each situation and thus made it successful, however with the change on context, different prosocial behaviours may not have been considered appropriate for the different situations.

Word Count: 3,091


Devito, J. A, (2009) The Interpersonal Communication Book, United States of America: Pearce Education, Inc.

Hargie, O. and Dickson, D. (2004) Skilled Interpersonal Communication: Research, Theory and Practice, Cornwall, UK: Routledge.

Hewstone, M. and Stroebe, W. (2001) Introduction to Social Psychology,Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.

Watson, J. and Hill, A. (2006) Dictionary of Media and Communication Skills, London, UK: Hodder Education.

Hargie, O. D. W. (1997) The Handbook of Communication Skills, London, UK: Routledge.

Online References

BBC Worldwide (01 August 2007) Germaine Greer interview- This is Dom Joly- BBC Comedy, (Accessed 23rd April, 2010)

Australian Screen (1992) The Book Show- Germaine Greer, (Accessed 21stApril, 2010).

November 8, 2010

Instant Glamour-Picture Story

5th eye shot open

Originally uploaded by katcompass

Instant glamour with the flick of a brush. This step-by-step guide will show you how to get the outrageous eyes you’ve always wanted for a night on the town and is guaranteed to get you noticed!
Make-up: Amirah Ajaz
Photography: Hayley Lees

Visit Flickr to see the guide.